Indian Penal Code IPC 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 Section PDF
IPC 21 TO 30 Section
Indian Penal Code IPC 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 Section
IPC 21 Public servant
The words “public servant” denote a person falling under any of the descriptions hereinafter following, namely:—
Second.—Every Commissioned Officer in the Military, 6 [Naval or Air] Forces of India;
Third.—Every Judge including any person empowered by law to discharge, whether by himself or as a member of any body of persons, any adjudicatory functions;
Fourth.—Every officer of a Court of Justice 10[(including a liquidator, receiver or commissioner)] whose duty it is, as such officer, to investigate or report on any matter of law or fact, or to make, authenticate, or keep any document, or to take charge or dispose of any property, or to execute any judicial process, or to administer any oath, or to interpret, or to preserve order in the Court, and every person specially authorised by a Court of Justice to perform any of such duties;
Fifth.—Every juryman, assessor, or member of a panchayat assisting a Court of Justice or public servant;
Sixth.—Every arbitrator or other person to whom any cause or matter has been referred for decision or report by any Court of Justice, or by any other competent public authority;
Seventh.—Every person who holds any office by virtue of which he is empowered to place or keep any person in confinement;
Eighth.—Every officer of 1 [the Government] whose duty it is, as such officer, to prevent offences, to give information of offences, to bring offenders to justice, or to protect the public health, safety or convenience;
Ninth.—Every officer whose duty it is as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property on behalf of 1 [the Government], or to make any survey, assessment or contract on behalf of the Government, or to execute any revenue-process, or to investigate, or to report, on any matter affecting the pecuniary interests of the Government, or to make, authenticate or keep any document relating to the pecuniary interests of 1 [the Government], or to prevent the infraction of any law for the protection of the pecuniary interests of the Government
Tenth.—Every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property, to make any survey or assessment or to levy any rate or tax for any secular common purpose of any village, town or district, or to make, authenticate or keep any document for the ascertaining of the rights of the people of any village, town or district;
Eleventh.—Every person who holds any office in virtue of which he is empowered to prepare, publish, maintain or revise an electoral roll or to conduct an election or part of an election;
(a) in the service or pay of the Government or remunerated by fees or commission for the performance of any public duty by the Government;
(b) in the service or pay of a local authority, a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).] Illustration A Municipal Commissioner is a public servant.
Explanation 1.—Persons falling under any of the above descriptions are public servants, whether appointed by the Government or not.
Explanation 2.—Wherever the words “public servant” occur, they shall be understood of every person who is in actual possession of the situation of a public servant, whatever legal defect there may be in his right to hold that situation. 3 [Explanation 3.—The word “election” denotes an election for the purpose of selecting members of any legislative, municipal or other public authority, of whatever character, the method of selection to which is by, or under, any law prescribed as by election.] 5 * * * * *
IPC 22 Movable property
The words “movable property” are intended to include corporeal property of every description, except land and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to anything which is attached to the earth.
IPC 23 Wrongful gain
“Wrongful gain” is gain by unlawful means of property to which the person gaining is not legally entitled Wrongful loss “Wrongful loss” is the loss by unlawful means of property to which the person losing it is legally entitled. Gaining wrongfully/Losing wrongfully.—A person is said to gain wrongfully when such person retains wrongfully, as well as when such person acquires wrongfully. A person is said to lose wrongfully when such person is wrongfully kept out of any property, as well as when such person is wrongfully deprived of property.
IPC 24 Dishonestly
Whoever does anything with the intention of causing wrongful gain to one person or wrongful loss to another person, is said to do that thing “dishonestly”.
IPC 25 Fraudulently
A person is said to do a thing fraudulently if he does that thing with intent to defraud but not otherwise.
IPC 26 Reason to believe
A person is said to have “reason to believe” a thing, if he has sufficient cause to believe that thing but not otherwise.
IPC 27 Property in possession of wife, clerk or servant
When property is in the possession of a person’s wife, clerk or servant, on account of that person, it is in that person’s possession within the meaning of this Code. Explanation.—A person employed temporarily or on a particular occasion in the capacity of a clerk or servant, is a clerk or servant within the meaning of this section.
IPC 28 Counterfeit
A person is said to “counterfeit” who causes one thing to resemble another thing, intending by means of that resemblance to practise deception, or knowing it to be likely that deception will thereby be practised. 1 [Explanation 1.—It is not essential to counterfeiting that the imitation should be exact. Explanation 2.—When a person causes one thing to resemble another thing, and the resemblance is such that a person might be deceived thereby, it shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, that the person so causing the one thing to resemble the other thing intended by means of that resemblance to practise deception or knew it to be likely that deception would thereby be practised.]
IPC 29 Document
The word “document” denotes any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures or marks, or by more than one of those means, intended to be used, or which may be used, as evidence of that matter. Explanation 1.—It is immaterial by what means or upon what substance the letters, figures or marks are formed, or whether the evidence is intended for, or may be used in, a Court of Justice, or not. Illustrations A writing expressing the terms of a contract, which may be used as evidence of the contract, is a document. A cheque upon a banker is a document. A power-of-attorney is a document. A map or plan which is intended to be used or which may be used as evidence, is a document. A writing containing directions or instructions is a document. Explanation 2.—Whatever is expressed by means of letters, figures or marks as explained by mercantile or other usage, shall be deemed to be expressed by such letters, figures or marks within the meaning of this section, although the same may not be actually expressed. Illustration A writes his name on the back of a bill of exchange payable to his order. The meaning of the endorsement, as explained by mercantile usage, is that the bill is to be paid to the holder. The endorsement is a document, and must be construed in the same manner as if the words “pay to the holder” or words to that effect had been written over the signature. 2
IPC 29A Electronic record
The words “electronic record” shall have the meaning assigned to them in clause (t) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000).]
IPC 30 Valuable security
The words “valuable security” denote a document which is, or purports to be, a document whereby any legal right is created, extended, transferred, restricted, extinguished or released, or whereby any person acknowledges that he lies under legal liability, or has not a certain legal right. Illustration A writes his name on the back of a bill of exchange. As the effect of this endorsement is to transfer the right to the bill to any person who may become the unlawful holder of it, the endorsement is a “valuable security”.
What is IPC 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 in Indian Penal Code
- Section 21 – “Public Servant”: This section defines what constitutes a “public servant” under the IPC. It typically includes government officials, officers, and employees who perform public duties.
- Section 22 – “Act of a public servant”: This section defines what actions or omissions can be considered as acts of a public servant. It specifies that the person should be acting in the discharge of their official duties.
- Section 23 – “Wrongful gain” and Section 24 – “Wrongful loss”: These sections define the terms “wrongful gain” and “wrongful loss” respectively. Wrongful gain refers to a gain by unlawful means, while wrongful loss is the loss caused to someone due to those unlawful means.
- Section 25 – “Property”: This section defines what constitutes “property” under the IPC. It includes various forms of movable and immovable property.
- Section 26 – “Reason to believe”: This section explains what it means to have “reason to believe” something in the context of the IPC. It’s related to the mental state of an individual when committing certain offenses.
- Section 27 – “Property in possession of wife, clerk, or servant”: This section deals with property held by a wife, clerk, or servant. It clarifies that the property is considered to be in the possession of the husband or employer in certain situations.
- Section 28 – “Counterfeit”: This section defines the term “counterfeit” and is often relevant in cases related to counterfeit currency or goods.
- Section 29 – “Document”: This section defines what constitutes a “document” under the IPC. Documents can include a wide range of written or printed materials.
- Section 30 – “Valuable security”: This section defines what constitutes a “valuable security” under the IPC. Valuable securities can include various financial instruments and documents of value.